In case of Boeing, the Burke-Litwin diagnostic model would help identify issues. In this model, the planned change flows from top to bottom and the Burke-Litwin model focuses on both transformational and transactional factors of change.
According to Johnson (2004), companies pursuing certification to quality standards must apply change methodologies to institutionalize the requirements into the business. Existing change models, such as Burke-Litwin, can serve as the foundation for identifying underlying, predictive variables impacting response variables of a quality management system including quality and delivery performance. The models were selected based on their applicability and similarity in integration of organizational variables with great similarities to those of a typical quality management system. Adaptation of change models specifically to quality management standards provides the conceptual framework in which businesses can operate. Burke-Litwin’s model (Figure below) proved to be very useful in the development of the quality standard performance outcome model. The Burke-Litwin model focuses on two aspects of change: transformational and transactional factors. External environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, and individual and organizational performance are considered the transformational factors (Burke, 1994). The other variables are transactional factors. This model contributed significantly to the research model by focusing on the transformational factors of external environment – mandated conformance to quality standards, leadership for quality, quality strategy, quality culture, and key organizational performance measures – quality and delivery ratings. As a part of the transformational organizational change model developed for this study, additional components classified as transactional factors by Burke-Litwin relating to structure and systems have been defined as transformational in nature. Systems has been restated and referred to as quality techniques and tools. (Burke, 1994).
There are several conditions that need to be present when pursuing a major transformational change:
* clear focus;
* driven from the top;
* leaders must commit to systemic, organization-wide change;
* employee involvement; and
* external coaches or change agents to facilitate the change process (Juechter et al., 1998).
1. Burke, W.W. (1994), Diagnosis for Organizational Change, Guidford Press, New York, NY, Ch. 3.
2. Johnson, DM 2004, “Adaptation of organizational change models to the implementation of quality standard requirements.”, The International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management 21, no. 2/3, (February 10): 154-174.
3. Juechter, W.M., Fisher, C. and Alford, RJ. (1998), “Five conditions for high-performance cultures”, Training & Development, Vol. 52 No. 5, pp. 63-7.